The DSM-5 is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It contains diagnostic criteria -- such as symptoms being experienced -- and it groups disorders to help assist clinicians with effectively diagnosing mental health disorders. Below are the eating disorders the DSM-5 includes:
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by weight loss; trouble maintaing a healthy weight according to age, height, and sature; fear of gaining weight; intense dietary habits that prevent weight gain; and a disorted perception on body image. There are two subtypes of Anorexia nervosa: restricting type and binge-eating/purging subtype. Individuals with the restricting subtype can be characterized by the intense limitation of food as a way to lose weight. The binge-eating/purging subtype is defined by periods of binge eating and/or purging through vomiting, laxatives, or cumpulsive exercising.
Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by epsiodes of excessive eating (binge-eating) followed by unhealthy ways to control weight, such as: self-induced vomitting (purging), extensive use of laxatives and diurectics, or over-exercising as a way to undo or makeup for the effects of binge eating.
Binge Eating Disorder
Binge Eating Disorder is characterized by the urgent need to eat out of control as a response of being anxious. This state of anxiety decreases during the binge but increases once the binge is finished. Unlike Bulimia nervosa, the individuals do not purge their bodies of excessive calories. They undergo feelings of guilt, shame, and stress, which leads them to another binge episode. Individuals claim their body image feelings become more bearable once they give into their urge to binge.
Pica is an eating disorder that is characterized by a craving for something that is not nutritive, such as: clay, paper, or dirt. Pica is known to cause an iron deficency in children and is seen as a sympton to different neurobiological disorders, like autism and Tourette's syndrome. It is sometimes seen during pregnancy as well.
Rumination disorder involves the constant regurigitation of food that occurs for a minimum of one month. Regurgiatated food is either re-chewed, re-swallowed, or spit out. Majority of the time, people who regurgitate their food do not appear to be applying effort nor do they appear stressed or disgusted.
Avoidance Restrictive Intake
Avoidance Food Restrictive Intake Disorder (AFRID) affects mainly people in childhood or infancy, but it can also affect adults. It involves a person having some type of issue with certain food or foods, which results in them not receiving adequate nutrition; provoking weight loss. Problems can range from Individuals having trouble digesting food to avoiding particular types, textures or colors of food, or they can fear eating due to being afraid of choking or vomiting.
Additional Eating Disorders that are recognized in the DSM-5
Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorder
Other Specified Eating Disorder, also known as OSFED, is a feeding or eating disorder that causes an immense amount of distress or impairment but does not fit the criteria for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.
Unspecified Feeding and Eating Disorder
Unspecified Feeding and Eating Disorder, also known as UFED, applies to situations in which symptoms related to a feeding and eating disorder cause significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other major events. It does not reach the full criteria for any type of disorders in the feeding and eating disorders diagnostic class, causing it to be labeled as "unspecified." The UFED category is often used in situations where the clinician chooses not the specify the reason in which the criteria are not met for a specific feeding or eating disorder -- this can be due to lack of information, such as in an emergency room setting.
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Body Dysmorphic Disorder, referred to as BDD, is a mental disorder in which an individual is constantly thinking about one or more flaws in their appearance — a flaw that, to others, is either minor or not visible. However, they may feel so anxious and embarrassed that they may avoid many social situations. This causes them to constantly groom, check the mirror, or seek cosmetic procedures.
Eating Disorders that are not formally recognized in the DSM-5:
Diabulimia is when an individual purposely decreases the use of insulin intake to lose weight. Diabulimia is labeled as a dual diagnosis disorder: where one has diabetes as well as an eating disorder. While diabulimia is mainly associated with the use of insulin, an individual with diabetes is also at risk of suffering from an eating disorder. Diabulimia does not have a seprate diangosis, thus classifying insulin omission as a purging behavior
Muscle dysmorphia is a type of obsessive-compulsive disorder that is a subcategory of body dysmorphic disorder. The disorder becomes an obsession with the level of muscularity and leanness. The compulsion is to reach the desired levels of muscularity and leanness. An excessive amount of supplements can also be used to enhance the body.
An individual with Night Eating Syndrome (NES) has problems falling asleep or staying asleep. Every time they wake up, they typically immediately eat. The person delays their first meal after several hours of waking up; they eat more food after dinner than in a meal. Unlike a binge, NES involves constantly eating throughout evening hours. It is categorized under Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders.
Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is a disorder in which individuals describe a parasominia and eating without control, often involving high-caloric foods or inedile and toxic items. Sleep-related eating disorders fall under the category of Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders (OSFED).
Orthorexia is the obsession of restricting certain foods or ingredients that are labeled unhealthy, unclean, or unwholesome (ex: animal proteins or carbohydrates). Orthorexia does not have a separate, formal diagnosis but can fall under the category of Avoidance Food Restrictive Intake (AFRID).